It is IIt is me 構文のコーパス基盤変異理論的考察

久屋 愛実(福岡女学院大学)

本稿は,ほぼ完了したとされる「it is 人称代名詞」構文における主格から目的格への交替を,コーパス基盤変異理論的視点(CVL)から捉えた実証的研究である。先行研究は新変異形がすでに一般に普及していることを示唆するが,この変化の全容を捉えた実証データは管見の限り存在しない。そこで,通時的コーパスCOHA の実時間データを計量的に分析し,変化のほぼ全過程を予測する多変量モデルを提示した。その結果,変化は(1)一人称単数形(I/me)で最も早く進行したこと,(2)I/me では20 世紀後半までにほぼ完了したこと,(3)非縮約構文(it is)よりも縮約構文(it’s, it isn’t 等)の環境下で先に拡大したことが判明した。本研究は,コーパス言語学と変異研究の利点を統合させた分野横断的アプローチにより,長年にわたり議論されてきた統語変化の過程を実証的,包括的かつ詳細に記述することに成功した点で,言語変異・変化研究に資する。


永澤  済(名古屋大学)

中国漢文において助動詞「令」は〈使役〉を表すが,日本中世の和化漢文では,本来の〈使役〉用法から派生したとみられる独自の非〈使役〉用法が非常に広範囲に使用されている。この「令」の機能について,従来,取り除いても文意に影響しないとの見方や,〈謙譲〉〈再帰〉〈意志動詞化〉等の意を表すとの見方が示されてきたが,統一的な結論は出ていない。本稿では,従来の意味中心の分析ではなく,構文機能に目を向けることで次のように結論した。非使役「令」の機能は動詞マーカー/動詞化である。助詞や接辞を表し得ない和化漢文で,和語の軽動詞「する」を代替した。その起源は,本来使役を表す「S 令V」構文が(他)動詞文と意味的に隣接するケースにおいて,「令」の表す使役の意が後退して単なる動詞マーカーと解釈されたものと推定される。V の位置には,意志行為,非意志現象,無生物主体の事象,形容詞まで幅広く立つ。先行研究で「令」は「致」との類似性が指摘されたが,「致」の後続語は意志行為に限られかつ「令」の場合のような動詞化はせず名詞的性格にとどまる点で,両者の機能は異なる*。


鈴木 博之(復旦大学)・四郎翁姆(ボン大学)・才譲三周(ロンドン大学SOAS)

チベット系諸言語は複雑な証拠性・認識性の標示体系をもつ言語群として知られている。これまで多くの先行研究がさまざまなチベット系諸言語の証拠性の記述を行ってきたが,用語と枠組みが先行研究によって多岐にわたるため,これらの言語の証拠性に関する対照研究は困難であった。本稿では,研究蓄積のあるラサチベット語の証拠性の体系を1 つの基準として,共通の調査票を用いて5 種類のチベット系諸言語の判断動詞と存在動詞に関する「アクセス系」に属する証拠性の体系を記述し,各形式の形態を分析する。次いで,言語間に認められる異同を議論する。結論として,本稿で取り上げたカム及びアムド地域のチベット系諸言語は,判断動詞と存在動詞を統一的な証拠性の枠組みのもとに記述することが可能であり,その中で細部に異なりが認められるものの,本質的な体系を共有していることを示す。


A Corpus-based Variationist Approach to the Use of It is I and It is Me: A Real-time Observation of a Syntactic Change Nearing Completion in COHA

Aimi Kuya
(Fukuoka Jo Gakuin University)

This is a corpus-based variationist linguistics (CVL) study into a syntactic variation and change that is nearing completion: the shift from it is I (nominative) to it is me (accusative) in American English. Despite a number of recent statements in grammar books and dictionaries that the new variant, i.e., the accusative construction, has earned public acceptance, few attempts have been made to provide empirical support for the entire diachronic shift from nominative case to accusative case. Real-time quantitative data from the diachronic corpus COHA characterizes almost the entire process of the syntactic change, and the analysis of the data using the multivariate model demonstrates: (i) that the shift first occurred in the first-person singular I/me, and then in the other personal pronouns; (ii) that the shift fron I to me had been almost completed by the latter half of the 20th century; (iii) that the shift achieved a level of near-completion much earlier in contracted constructions such as it’s I/me than in non-contracted constructions such as it is I/me. The present study makes a cross-disciplinary contribution to the study of language variation and change by combining advantages of variationist sociolinguistics with those of corpus linguistics. It succeeds in complementing findings from previous studies by providing an empirical, comprehensive and detailed account of the process of this well-known syntactic change.*
Key words: corpus-based variationist linguistics (CVL), sociolinguistics, language variation and change, real-time study, multiple logistic regression analysis

Functions of Non-causative “令 shimu”in Japanized Chinese Writings in the Kamakura Period

Itsuki Nagasawa
(Nagoya University)

The auxiliary verb “ 令 shimu” was used in a causative sense in Classical Chinese writings. However, in Japanized Chinese writings in the Kamakura period of medieval Japan, it was widely used in a non-causative sense, which is presumed to have derived from a causative one. Regarding its function no agreement has been reached: some studies have suggested that the presence or absence of this auxiliary verb did not affect the meaning of a sentence; other ones have considered it to mean “humble”, “reflexive”, “marking volitional”, etc. Focusing more on its structural function than its semantic one, we made the following conclusions. The function of non-causative shimu is to mark the following word as a verb or make the word into a verb. It was used as a substitute for the light verb suru in Japanized Chinese writing in which neither Japanese native particles nor suffixes could be used. The origin of non-causative shimu could be the Classical Chinese causative construction “S shimu V,” where in some contexts shimu-V with causative meaning was semantically close to a transitive verb and shimu was reanalyzed as a marker of verbs. In the position of V stands a wide range of actions, such as both volitional and non-volitional actions, and inanimatesubjects events; it can even be an adjective. Prior research has noted that the function of shimu was similar to that of “ 致 itasu,” but the fact that words following itasu were not verbs but nouns and semantically limited to volitional actions indicates that they function differently.

A Contrastive Approach to the Evidential System in Tibetic Languages: Examining Five Varieties from Khams and Amdo

Hiroyuki Suzuki
(Fudan University)
Sonam Wangmo
(Universität Bonn)
Tsering Samdrup
(SOAS, University of London)

Tibetic languages constitute a language complex with a complicated evidential-epistemic marking system. Many studies have described evidentiality in various Tibetic languages; however, significant variations in terminology and framework make a contrastive approach to the evidential system of these languages difficult. In this article, we describe the ‘access-type’ evidential marking system of copulative and existential verbs in five Tibetic languages and make a morphological analysis by using a common questionnaire based on the evidential system of Lhasa Tibetan, the most-described variety of the Tibetic languages. Next, we discuss the dissimilarities between languages. In conclusion, we show that the copulative and existential verbs in the Tibetic languages of the Khams and Amdo regions discussed in this article share the essential system of evidential marking under the unified framework of the evidential category, although they demonstrate significant differences.*
Key words: Tibetic, access to information, egophoric, sensory, epistemicity